Computer Program

A computer program is a set of statements or instructions to be used directly or indirectly in a computer in order to bring about a certain result.



Programming Languages

A programming language or computer language is a standardized communication technique for expressing instructions to a computer. It is a set of syntactic and semantic rules used to define computer programs.



Syntax & Semantics

Refers to the spelling and grammar of a programming language. Computers are inflexible machines that understand what you type only if you type it in the exact form that the computer expects. The expected form is called the syntax. For example, if you misspell a command, it is a syntax error. If on the other hand, you enter a legal command that does not make any sense in the current context, it is a semantic error.



Program Design Methods

There are few types of program design methods and explain as bellow.



Unstructured Programming

  • Unstructured programming is a programming paradigm where all code is contained in a single continuous block.
  • Unstructured programming languages have to rely on execution flow statements such as Goto, used in many languages to jump to a specified section of code.



Structured Programming

In Structured programming, a style of programming in which the programmer divides his program's source code into logically structured chunks of code. Structured programming is a design approach where the complex system is broken down into smaller more manageable pieces. A program or program module that has one beginning and one ending and each step in the program execution consists of one of the following.

  • Sequence - Executing the sequence of instructions one after other
  • Selection - Presentation of a condition and the choice between two actions.
  • Repetition - Presentation of a set of instructions to be performed rapidly as long as the condition is true.



Modular Programming

Modular programming is an advancement of structured programming, in which the whole program is decomposed into more manageable modules. There no of entry points and exit point to execute the program.

There are two main principles behind the modular program.

1. Coupling - The degree to which one class is connected to relies upon other class.

2. Cohesion - The degree to which the attributes and behaviors of a single class are related each other.


By striving for high cohesion and low coupling, we want each class to focus on essentially one thing and for each class to be as independent as possible. The reason behind the goals of high cohesion and low coupling is object re-usability.



Object-Oriented Programming

OOP is a programming paradigm that uses "objects" and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. It is based on several techniques including inheritance, modularity, polymorphism, and encapsulation.



Data-Oriented Programming

In Data-Oriented Programming, the main concern is on data structures used on the requirements which are suitable according to the chosen abstracts. Its fully focusing on abstract data types and their implementations.

For example Linked List, Stck...etc

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